Part 2

Information File Part 2

by icotag

Information File


Painting at the Edge of the World


Project Brief



Project Context:

The Interrogating the Real project began to help you consider the ways in which artists might re-consider fundamental presumptions about painting and its role and purpose in a contemporary world saturated with reproduced imagery. In this project we want you to continue questioning what a painting can be in terms of its form and context. This will involve testing the boundaries and contexts in which you can place a painting, as well as testing the properties that traditionally make up a painting itself.

In the process of doing this you will begin to consider how painting can function in the wider world, as well as within a white cube gallery.

At what point does the edge of a painting begin and end? Must it end at the edge of a sheet of paper or canvas - could it also take in the wall or floor, extending the pictorial space of a painting into three dimensions? What relationship might a painting have towards the moving image, animation or installation art? In an effort to re-consider what it might mean to be a painter today many painters have asked themselves these questions and this has led them to construct hybrid works that have used the conventions and languages of painting to relate to the world in new ways.

Project Description:

The project is split into two related parts, each with a different emphasis.

Part One is called ‘Beyond the Edge of the Frame’ and looks at ways to extend a painting beyond its edge, relating it to the wall, a corner and the floor.
This part of the project will also include a colour theory and interaction presentation and workshop.

Part Two is called ‘Expanded Painting’ and it asks you to make a painting in relation to film, sculpture, architecture or a photographic object. This project will include a one-day project in which you will experiment with projection equipment to explore the interaction of painting and light.

Both parts of the project will be introduced with an illustrated presentation, and contextualized with the works of historical and contemporary artists.
The overall project will be concluded with a group critique in which you will be asked to display and discuss completed work from the project.

During this project will be also given advice about preparing your portfolio and given guidance on how to document and present your work. 



Enrico David


Enrico David is an artist based in London and Berlin (born in Italy). He works in painting, drawing, sculpture and installation, at times employing traditional craft technic. I really like his creative and humorous world. I feel it has something narrative in his works. The blackness makes the characters' face or body emphasise. Although many things in his pieces are uncomfortable, the weird atmosphere of his works is really interesting and fascinating me so much.

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Takashi Murakami


Takashi Murakami is one of the famous and successful Japanese artists. In Japan, there is a lot of negative opinions about his style of painting since he borrowed a design of Japanese Otaku culture (Otaku is a Japanese term for people who have obsessively interests for something, commonly Japanese comics or animation) for his art pieces, used the culture as a product and earned money around the world. But in my opinion, he is a great artist who is representing Japan because he actually succeeded in artistic world as business and established a new Japanese art industry, and as Otaku culture is not someone's property or production as well, everyone has a right to use the culture for something creative. The Otaku culture have become identity of Japanese people since it grew steadily and quietly in these decades.



Lost in Translation: The Politics of Identity in the Work of Takashi Murakami (written by Alison M. Gingeras)

Takashi Murakami is an unlikely hero when it comes to identity politics. One of the most commercially potent artists of our day, he has founded his creative empire as much on his dazzling array of extra-studio activities - curating a trilogy of museum exhibitions around his theory of the 'Superflat'; orchestrating the burgeoning careers of his artistic proteges from his Kaikai Kiki studio; collaborating on music videos and album covers for hip-hop stars such as Kanye West; organising GEISAI, a spectacular biannual arts festival in Tokyo; or designing motifs for Luis Vuitton luxury goods - as on his more conventional activities as a painter and sculptor. While the combination of these pursuits has made him a 'star', they have also severely handicapped his critical credibility. In fact, his international celebrity, recognisable 'brand' name and financial success are used as evidence against him when the integrity of his artistic practice is called into question. How could his work retain any critical or socio-political meaning when it is so closely aligned with the market?

Yet if one considers identity politics as a means to advance the interests of an oppressed or marginalised group, then Murakami should be reconsidered first and foremost as a political artist. While his approach does not possess the hallmarks of political art - it in fact completely disavows oppositional critique - his entrepreneurial enterprise can be understood as a quest to rid Japanese national cultural identity of its inferiority complex vis-a-vis American pop-cultural hegemony and to understand the lasting trauma of the Second World War in the formation of post-war Japanese culture. As Murakami's friend and scholarly collaborator Noi Sawaragi attempts to explain regarding the overarching objective of his curatorial work:

The Superflat Manifesto did not make the righteous claim that Japanese can produce high art just like Westerners; instead, [Murakami] aimed to recreate global art by changing the value system, proclaiming 'the time has come to take pride in our art which is a kind of subculture, ridiculed and deemed "monstrous" by those in the Western art world.

The nationalist/redemptive drive is not limited to Murakami's curatorial efforts. Reading his entire oeuvre, as well as the performance of his public persona, through his project of nationalist vindication opens up a broader understanding of his unique adoption of 'Business Art' strategies.

Yet because Murakami's Business Art DNA is shared with Andy Warhol, it is understandable why his critical intent and engagement with identity politics can become lost in translation when it comes to the mainstream reception of his work. On the surface, his modus operandi seems to come straight out of the Warholian playbook, with little variation from the original model: striving for mainstream celebrity; adopting corporate business structures; catering to our collective appetite for sensationalism; transgressing avant-garde hierarchies that separate high from low, commodity from art. Yet it is necessary to look beyond the apolitical connotations that plague any artist bracketed with Warhol in order to differentiate their approaches and uncover Murakami's skilful manipulation of Japanese signifiers as well as his dual performance of his national identity at home and abroad.



Superflat is a postmordern art movement, founded by the artist Takashi Murakami, which is influenced by manga and anime. "Superflat" is used by Murakami to refer to various flattened forms in Japanese graphic art, animation, pop culture and fine arts, as well as the "shallow emptiness of Japanese consumer culture." Murakami defines Superflat in broad terms, so the subject matter is very diverse. Often the works explore the consumerism and sexual fetishism that is prevalent in post-war Japanese culture.


Michelangelo Pestoletto



Michelangelo Pistoletto is an Italian painter. Pistoletto' s Mirror Paintings are artworks made of human size mirrors. Using these mirrors as basic material, he paints figures or prints photographic images on them. First Mirror Paintings were created in the early sixties. The printed subjects show a broad spectrum of motives: for example self-portraits, pictures from gallery visitors or objects of daily life. (Wikipedia)

It looks really cool, and the idea is amazing. When his works are in a same room, the viewer would be confused which is his pieces or not.



Essential reading



by Mick Finch





A Picture I referred to my work


For "emptiness" work. I wanted to paint a girl who is looking down her head, and then I got this photo on the Internet. Since her face was showing her sadness, this picture was matching the image of my work.


Materials I used



Oil paints and mediums

Since it was my first time to use oil paints for ages, I forgot how to paint with it a little bit. I used drying linseed oil so much because I thought that I did not have enough time to dry my painting with normal linseed oil, but actually I could not recognise whether the drying linseed oil is quick to dry. My friend told me that there was a medium which is quicker drying than it. I should find out which medium is the one.


Makoto Aida


Makoto Aida is a Japanese contemporary artist. He is one of the famous "Neo-Japonism" artists. I got inspiration from his works when I was making my works for this project.

His art explores the dynamics of the Japanese psyche, incorporating young girls, businessmen, war and politics. Some of his paintings are so big and painstakingly detailed that they take years to complete. Aida's art includes manga-style painting, traditional Japanese painting, photography, sculpture, video and installation. (Tracy Jones)







Since your father was a sociology professor, what influence did this have on your art? How did he influence you to become an artist?

I decided to become an artist when I was 16 years old. Whether my father had a real influence on me upon deciding to become one... I don't know, I guess you can say, yes and no [laughs]. As far as I can remember, I was always a rebel to my father since he and my mother were both teachers and naturally, a pair of what we can call "conformists." Perhaps because they were parents, they always somehow looked conservative to my eyes, too, and my father was a man farthest away from being "edgy" or "radical." As a matter of fact, I've thought about any possible influence by my father? regardless of whether on conscious or subconscious level. Either way, one thing I've found it personally curious, even to this day, is that I have ended up doing more or less the same as what my father - whom I've always perceived as someone different from myself and whom I was rebelling against - did professionally. He analyses the society and makes commentaries on the society - and at first glance, we might appear to be engaged in completely almost opposite things, but the truth of the matter is that I'm doing the same, but just through different means (my artworks) or different channels, I guess.



What do you think Japan will be like in the next 20 years?


Because there?ll be less and less kids and the Japanese economy would be steadily declining, I think Japan will be a very small and poor country, economy-wise. In its process, however, people will hopefully learn to make ends meet at least, and also learn to make their lives, in general, much simpler to adjust to such social state / circumstances then. I think I will be more than happy, as long as there remains a solid, mature culture here.


Do you see your influence on young up and coming artists?

I do enjoy working with younger artists and looking after them, but you know, the funny thing is, that most of those ?young artist-friends? of mine have different styles from mine. What they are thinking are very different from what I used to think when I was at their age, or what I think now. But we do get along. I guess I can offer them what they are missing and vice versa. We feed off of each other as an exchange, so it is a mutually beneficial and stimulating relationship, I think rather than a teacher-student relationship, a master-disciple relationship, or a mentor-protégé type of relationship.



Pictures I referred to my work



For "nostalgia of youth". These photos are girls wearing Japanese school uniform called "sailer-fuku". This is one of traditional uniforms in Japan. As my school was different one, I admire to wear it.


Interrogating the Real


Project Brief





Richard Hamilton


Swinging London 6, 1968-69

Acrylic, collage and aluminium

relief on silkscreen of acrylic on canvas

Richard Hamilton is an English painter and collage artist. He based this work on a photograph, appropriated from a newspaper, showing Mick Jagger handcuffed to the art dealer Robert Fraser. The photograph appeared following their appearance in court on drugs charges. Both were convicted. The title plays the term 'Swinging London' against the judge's insistence on imposing a swingeing penalty. For many, this occasion typified the moral backlash against the liberalisation of the 1960s. (TATE Display caption)

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I like his works because it is very playful and has his unique worldview. I am also fond of his sense of the colour in his paintings. He is one of my favourite artists.


Karin Mamma Andersson



Humdrum Day, 2013

Oil on panel

112.5 x 108.5cm

Karin Mamma Andersson is a contemporary artist based in Stockholm and one of Sweden's most internationally famous artists.

I am not really keen on her paintings. I think I do not like the colouring of them. The whole colour looks duty, and she does not have any special skills. I just think her works are just good composition, does not have anything special. 





Donald Moffett


Lot 041212 (cadmium comfort) 2012, 2012

Oil on Linen with wood panel support with cast iron flanges common clack pipe, hardware

53.3 x 43.2 x 53.3cm

Donald Moffett is an American painter.

He extends the traditional two-dimensional frame of the canvas, turning its flat plane into a rich ground for highly textured relief works and intricate constructions that incorporate video projections. Ranging from landscape and nature to politics and history, Moffett's subjects fuse poetry, humor, and provocation. (

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I think his works are abstract and exist between painting and sculpture. The surface looks like a grass field or a creature like a hairy caterpillar. I want to touch the face of the works because they look very soft and comfortable.





Pencil is a writing implement or art medium usually constructed of a narrow, solid pigment core inside a protective casing which prevents the core from being broken or leaving marks on the user's hand during use.

I used pencils for drawing on my sketchbook in the beginning of this project. I really like pencil drawing.


The image I used


I put "historical photos" on Google and found this picture. They seem like a high status or famous ladies.




Realism is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible, exotic and supernatural elements. Realism has been prevalent in the arts at many periods, and is in large part a matter of technique and training, and the avoidance of stylisation. In the visual arts, illusionistic realism is the accurate depiction of lifeforms, perspective, and the details of light and colour. Realist works of art may emphasise the ugly or sordid, such as works of social realism, regionalism, or Kitchen sink realism. (Wikipedia)

My image of realism is mainly the 19th century movement. I think Realism works were drawn with the painter's eyesight, so the difference between Realism and Photorealism is whether the painter is using a photo or not.

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Photorealism is a genre of art that encompasses painting, drawing and other graphic mediums, in which an artist studies a photograph and then attempts to reproduce the image as realistically as possible in another medium. Although the term can be used to broadly describe artworks in many different mediums, it is also used to refer specifically to a group of paintings and painters of the United States art movement that began in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Photorealism evolved from Pop Art and as a counter to Abstract Expressionism as well as Minimalist art movements in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the United States. (Wikipedia)

Photorealism is my most favourite movement. I saw some works of this movement in Museum of Modern Art in New York, and as it was forceful and skilful, it made me impressed. I have an experience to paint Photorealism, but it was very difficult and tough.

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Eloy Morales


Eloy Morales is a painter based in Madrid. His oils paintings are hyperrealistic facsimiles; the attention to detail in his work is uncanny.
The majority of his subjects tend to be of himself. Usually, the self-portraits consist of his visage smeared with various types of mediums and colour, to capture the light in a myriad of ways. Morales might be one of the best in the world at photorealistic and hyperrealistic oil painting.(

When I saw his painting on an article on the Internet, I was really impressed his works. The detailed work is impossible to do it for normal people. I can imagine it takes so long time and need so much patience. The motif is very playful, not like just a photo of himself. This is the reasons why I really like his works.

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Shigi Gou


Shigi Gou was a president of my high school and also a Japanese Photorealism artist. When I entered to the high school and saw his work, I knew the movement, and it was impressing me so much.


Luc Tuymans


Bend Over, 2001

Oil on canvas

60 x 60cm

Luc Tuymans is a Belgian artist who works in Antwerp and one of influential painters. His signature figurative paintings transform mediated film, television, and print sources into examinations of history and memory.

It is sculptural and figurative work and does not tell the sexuality of this hips. The colour is very simple and does not insist that much. I like this painting. I mentioned it does not show the sexuality of it, but I think this is a female hips.


Andy Denzler



Touch, 2012

Oil on canvas

120 x 140cm

Andy Denzler is a Swiss artist specialised in painting, printing, screen printing, graphic design, photography, sculpture and drawing. His work moves between abstraction and reality. I really like his painting. It looks like the viewer is looking the girl over a wet window. Even though it looks like what I said, we can understand she is a young girl and touching the water. It is not obvious but has enough information on this painting.


Jeff Wall



A Sudden Gust of Wind (After Hokusai), 1993 

This gigantic photographic image is based on Hokusai's woodcut 'A Strong Gust of Wind at Ejiri' from circa 1831. Hokusai's woodcut is set in the typhoon season in Japan and depicts travellers struggling to hold on to their hats and other possessions in a raging gale. Jeff Wall has transplanted the scene to the landscape around Vancouver and shows a group of figures caught off-guard by a sudden gust. The work is constructed from parts of more than fifty images shot over a year, which were then scanned and digitally processed. The result took so long to assemble that Wall himself likened the procedure to cinematography than photography.(


Hokusai Katsushika




Christian Holstad



Defending Decisions, 2005

pencil on newspaper

13 x 18cm

These seven works on paper belong to an ongoing series known as the 'Eraserhead' drawings. Ordinary black-and-white photographs are cut from newspapers; leaving large parts untouched, Holstad carefully erases the ink from other areas to create ghostly, ambiguous voids, rendering their subjects - political figures, landscapes, interiors - deformed and isolated. In their place, details are added in pencil to contort, warp and dramatically recontextualize the original image. This technique, married to the scale and fragile nature of the works, generates a tremendous and highly personal pathos, evoking feelings of loss and fear, and threatening our faith in and experience of media imagery. (

I have seen this work somewhere at some point. It is a quite scary image. The thing I was interested in was that the media he used was newspaper, and he drew with pencil and erased.


Materials of Oil Painting



Jeff Koons


 Jeff Koons is an American artist known for his reproduction of banal object. He is famous as a sculptor.

Jeff Koons made a name for himself by using everyday objects in special installations that touched on consumerism and the human experience. Some of his art has consisted of overtly sexual themes while others have been seen as a form of neo-kitsch, such as his balloon dogs.

His work takes on, in usually unconventional ways, such hot-button subjects such as sex, race, gender and fame, and it comes to life in such forms as balloons, bronzed sporting-goods items and inflatable pool toys. His knack for elevating the stature of such items from kitsch objects to high art has made his name synonymous with the art of mass culture.

And the transformation that takes place from Koons? finding the objects he?ll use and the art he creates with them often gives birth to an unexpected psychological dimension, as shifting colour, scale and representation take on new meaning, and the viewer can often find something wholly new in how humans, animals and anthropomorphised objects come to life.


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Abstract Art


Abstract art uses a visual language of shape, form, colour and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world.(Rudolph Arnheim, Visual Thinking)

Abstract art, nonfigurative art, nonobjective art, and nonrepresentational art are loosely related terms. They are similar, but perhaps not of identical meaning.

I think abstract art is difficult to classify. If an object in a work is unrecognisable, it is easy to sort out that it is abstraction, but sometimes there is an object which we can understand what it is. It makes us difficult to distinguish whether it is abstraction or not. I wonder, if we should say "realistic work" when we found it was not abstraction.


White Cube


Liza Lou's exhibition titled Solid / Divide in South Galleries at White Cube Bermondsey. I wanted to take photos of her works, but I could not obtain permission.

This is the exhibition of new works by Liza Lou. For this exhibition, she distilled her exploration of glass bends into abstract, monochromatic and duo-coloured 'canvases' that explore the emotive potential of pure colour and the beauty of imperfection.

To be honest, I was not very keen on this exhibition because it does not look that she worked that much. Abstract works are very difficult because some works do not look that the artist has a great idea and works very well with his/her skill. In the exhibition, there were various types of canvas on the wall. I could not get any messages or themes etc., and it was very difficult to understand. I think, as I liked the last exhibition at White Cube, I highly expected a good outcome.


Whitechapel Gallery


National Gallery

I went to National Gallery with my parents, and it was my fourth time to visit there. Every time I see paintings there, they show different impressions to me. 



The Execution of Lady Jane Grey

Oil on canvas

246 x 297cm

by Paul Delaroche


I am into this painting from my first time to visit National Gallery. When I saw it, I felt it was very miserable but at the same time looked beautiful, and I can imagine the shinning and pure white dress would be dyed bloody red after she was executed. The lady is a great grand-daughter of Henry VII of England, Jane Grey, and was called "Nine days' Queen".


The Courtauld Gallery

It was my first time to visit the Courtauld Gallery, and I really enjoyed and took a fancy to it. There were paintings of 13th-15th, 15th-16th, 17th-18th, 19th, 20th century and Egon Shiel's works. As I really like impressionism, it became one of my most favourite galleries in London.



Egon Schiele


Tate Mordern



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